Research & Scholarship
Terry B. Rogers College of Education & Social Sciences
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Journal of Latinos and Education


Leslie Ramos-Salazar, Associate & Abdullat Professor of Business Communication and Decision Management, Dr. Elsa Diego-Medrano, Dr. Nancy Garcia, and Dr. Yvette Castillo, published "An Examination of Family Cohesion and Self-Esteem as Mediators of Bilingualism and Reading Achievement among Second-Generation Immigrant Students" in the Journal of Latinos and Education.

Second-generation Latinx immigrant students in middle school and high school may experience language and reading barriers in education resulting from their cultural upbringing. This study examined the language and reading scores of 2,107 bilingual dominant second-generation Latinx youth participants enrolled in 8th and 9th grade in the states of California and Florida. Results showed that bilingual dominance in English and Spanish is positively related to reading achievement scores, even when controlling for demographic variables. This study also found evidence that family cohesion and self-esteem mediated the relationship between bilingual dominance and reading achievement scores. This study provides insight into future research on the reading achievement of second-generation Latinx immigrant students. Implications for school administrators and educators regarding reading and language achievement for second-generation immigrant students will be shared with recommendations.

Journal of Research Inits


Dr. Michelle Simmons, Lanna Hatton Professor of Learning Disabilities, and Dr. Laurie Sharp published "Field-Based Experiences in Special Education Teacher Training: What Teacher Educators Do (and Should Do)" in the Journal of Research Initiatives.

Beginning teachers face a wide array of challenges in today’s PreK-12 classrooms. These challenges are magnified for beginning special education teachers who must meet the needs of an extremely diverse student population. To prepare beginning special education teachers for classroom realities, teacher educators must recognize and use high-leverage preparation practices in coursework and field-based experiences during teacher training. The goal of the present study was to conduct a state-level analysis that examined ways in which teacher educators implemented field-based experiences with preservice special education teachers. A cross-sectional survey research design was used to gather qualitative data from a sample of teacher educators who were affiliated with university-based teacher preparation programs.
Journal of Education and Social Policy


Dr. Betty Coneway, Dr. Geneva Schaeffer Professor of Education and Social ScienceDr. Sang Hwang, Professor of Education, Jill Goodrich, and Lyounghee Kim published "Influence of Sustained Scholarship Opportunities on School Culture and Social Acceptance" in the Journal of Education & Social Policy.

This mixed-methods study investigated the influence of a scholarship program that intentionally brings children together from different socio-economic and racial backgrounds. The scholarship is provided to students who attended a private preschool and were awarded a scholarship to attend the target school. The study explored the influence that this scholarship had on the stakeholders and the broader school culture. Findings revealed that diversification of the school’s population can help students become more accepting of diverse cultures. Participants shared that the enriched curriculum and smaller student/teacher ratio at the target school were beneficial to the recipients. Data highlighted that even though the scholarship covered the tuition, there were additional expenses that were prohibitive for the scholarship recipients. Conclusions support the belief that a positive school culture enables all students to feel a sense of belonging, participate actively in the educational community, and develop meaningful social relationships.



Dr. Betty Coneway, Dr. Geneva Schaeffer Professor of Education and Social ScienceDr. Audrey Meador, Assistant Professor of Mathematics, and Dr. Kathi Haynes published " A Mixed Methods Investigation of Cross-Age Reading Tutoring " in Education .

Preventing reading difficulties in elementary school should be a priority. This study examined the influence of cross-age reading tutoring on first-grade students and their fifth-grade tutors through a mixed methods research design. Collaborating with teachers and administrators of a private school, two classes of first grade and fifth grade students were given pre- and post- reading assessments. Students in one fifth-grade class were provided with mentoring training and instruction for specific foundational reading skills for the first-grade students during their enrichment computer class time, while the other fifth grade class did not receive the training or mentoring opportunity. Students in one first-grade class received reading tutoring from fifth grade mentors for twenty-five minutes twice a week for twelve weeks during their reading/language art instructional time and the other first-grade class did not. 

Intervention in School and Clinic


Dr. Mikyung Shin, Bill Piehl Professor of Education and Social Sciences, Dr. Michelle Simmons, Lanna Hatton Professor of Learning Disabilities, Dr. Audrey Meador, Assistant Professor of Mathematics, Dr. Francis Goode, Alexa Deal,  and Tammye Jackson published "Mathematics Instruction for Students With Learning Disabilities: Applied Examples Using Virtual Manipulatives" in Intervention in School and Clinic.

Technology has changed the practices related to teaching and learning mathematics in schools. The demand for learning mathematics in virtual environments is increasing in the 21st-century classroom. There has been widespread expansion of the use of technology in education. This column reviews three types of instruction—synchronous, asynchronous, and blended instruction—and provides applied examples regarding the use of virtual manipulatives in teaching mathematics to students with learning disabilities.

Texas Education Review


Dr. Michelle Simmons, Lanna Hatton Professor of Learning DisabilitiesDr. Mikyung Shin, Bill Piehl Professor of Education and Social Sciences, and Dr. Laurie Sharp published "Special Education Eligibility Identification Rates in Texas: A Comparative Analysis of Rural and Urban School Districts" in the Texas Education Review.

Special education policy impacts education equity. More specifically, special education policy surrounding the identification of students with disabilities and the provision of instructional support services to students identified as having a disability has experienced critical public attention and landmark federal and state mandates for reform over the past four academic years in the state of Texas. This article consults publicly available statewide data to assess the impact legislative amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) has had on urban and rural school districts located in the state of Texas. Using a two-tiered multilevel statistical analyses, changes in discrete special education eligibility categories are studied and trends in special education identification rates in rural and urban schools are compared. This investigation highlights disparities in special education identification rates between schools located in rural and urban areas. Implications for special education assessment practices, rural special education support and education policy are discussed.
Journal of Academic Support Programs


Dr. Kenneth Denton, Assistant Professor of Psychology, and Dr. Michelle Simmons, Lanna Hatton Professor of Learning Disabilities, published "Virtual Learning Assessment: Practical Strategies for Instructors in Higher Education" in the Journal of College Academic Support Programs.

Many universities have been designing and implementing online instruction for years, but the COVID-19 pandemic created an unexpected impetus for the expansion of virtual learning. Instructors and students who may not have previously chosen or experienced online instruction found themselves in need of safe, virtual options, and it appears that the general shift to virtual learning is here to stay. Strong, reliable assessment is a major component of virtual instruction, and instructors have several options for structuring student feedback. This article reviews the relevant literature regarding effective online assessment techniques and makes recommendations for the use of examinations and more authentic assessments, including video demonstrations, group projects, and discussion forums. Various data analytics within Learning Management Systems (LMS) are also explored. Discussion includes implications of online assessment and avenues for important research to strengthen response to this growing need.

Exceptional Children Journal


Dr. Mikyung Shin, Bill Piehl Professor of Education and Social Sciences, Dr. Jiyeon Park, Dr. Rene Grimes, and Dr. Diane P. Bryant, published "Effects of Using Virtual Manipulatives for Students With Disabilities: Three-Level Multilevel Modeling for Single-Case Data" in Exceptional Children.

We synthesized studies published since 2000 that assessed the effects of using virtual manipulatives to increase the mathematical accuracy of students with disabilities. We extracted a total of 1,796 raw data points from 114 cases across 35 single-case studies. By applying three-level multilevel modeling, we analyzed both immediate effects and trends during the intervention phase as well as moderation effects related to student characteristics (case level) and intervention features (study level). Both the average immediate effect and trend during the intervention were statistically significant. The average immediate effect varied significantly by student grade, disability type, developer, device, type of virtual manipulative, and visual model embedded in virtual manipulatives. Neither student characteristics nor intervention feature–related moderators significantly influenced the average trend during the use of virtual manipulatives.




Dr. Sohee Kim, Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science & Criminal Justice, published "Factors of fear of crime among Korean citizens: The mediating effect of confidence in the police" in the International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice.

Fear can deteriorate communities and erode the quality of life of residents. Some fear of crime literature argues that the police can be a tool for addressing residents' fear. However, the exact mechanism through which the police affect fear remains unknown. Using data from the 2013 Korean Crime Victim Survey, we examine the potential role that confidence in the police can play in explaining residents' fear of crime. Our findings suggest that confidence in the police mediates the relationship between some traditional indicators (i.e., informal social control) of fear. However, the persistent effects of other variables (i.e., gender) remain after accounting for confidence in the police.

Dr. Kim



Dr. Sohee Kim, Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science & Criminal Justice, et al. published "Religion and Misconduct Among Prison Inmates in South Korea" in the International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology.

Although faith-based programs are present in most prisons for offender rehabilitation, the effect of religion on prison inmates remains an understudied topic. In addition, existing research shows mixed results about the religious effect. The present study intends to not only advance the understanding of inmate’s prison misconduct but also examine whether religion is likely to contribute to reducing the risk of misconduct using a non-Western sample of inmates. To assess the relationship between inmates’ religion and prison misconduct, we applied negative binomial regression to analyze survey data from 986 Korean adult male inmates. Results showed that inmates who had a religious affiliation with Catholicism or Buddhism were less likely to report prison misconduct than those who had no religion. In addition, the inverse relationship was observed whether inmates had participated in religion before incarceration or came to participate in religion while incarcerated, depending on religious denomination.



Dr. Mark Garrison, Professor, Department of Education, published a book chapter titled "Confronting the Digital Leviathan in Education: On Cybernetic Pedagogy and Data-Intensive Algorithmic Technologies" in an edited volume, Handbook of Critical Approaches to Politics and Policy of Education.

New data-intensive “smart” technologies are now being broadly promoted and adopted in education, especially since the pandemic that began in 2020. This includes the related technologies of artificial intelligence (including machine learning), the Internet of Things (IoT) and blockchain. This furry of adoption has worked against a careful evaluation of the application of these technologies in education. Drawing on a range of critical theorists of technology and education, the first part of this chapter presents a framework for evaluating new digital technologies. Technology, it is argued, needs to be understood as a foundational human activity—it embodies and shapes the values and ideologies of a culture. Critical appraisal of any technology thus requires study of the interrelationship between that technology, and its context of development and subsequent use. 

INTL_Education Journal




Dr. Minseok Yang, Assistant Professor, Department of Education, and Dr. Ho Jun Lee published "Do school resources reduce socioeconomic achievement gap? Evidence from PISA 2015" in the International Journal of Educational Development.

Despite the attention to the impact of school resources on student achievement, little is known about how the school effect differs by students’ socioeconomic backgrounds. Using PISA 2015, we find that privileged students receive much more academic benefits from high quality teachers than their disadvantaged peers do. Additionally, the level of economic development across countries explains the heterogeneous effect of school resources. Our results suggest that the socioeconomic achievement gap could be worsened as a function of the difference in school resources across schools, particularly in non-OECD countries. We call for further studies on the heterogeneous effect of school resources with the viewpoint of educational equity.




Dr. Mark Garrison, Professor, Department of Education, published a book chapter titled "Critical Research Methodology: A Realist Approach" in an edited volume, Handbook of Critical Approaches to Politics and Policy of Education.

This chapter presents a critical methodology for approaching education politics and policy rooted in a realist philosophy of science. The first section begins with a discussion of the replication crisis and the long-standing methodological problems in social science. Given misperceptions about science rooted in positivism, the possibility of naturalism and a normative social science is discussed. Drawing on the work of Andrew Sayer, an alternative to positivism/anti-positivism is offered. Included is a discussion of science as inherently critical, the problems of objectivity, and reality as stratified, emergent, and meaningful. Social phenomena are examined as existing in open systems, and the challenges this poses for understanding and explaining social phenomena are reviewed. 

Dr. Laura N. Bell Targets of Terror Cover



Dr. Laura N. Bell, Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science and Criminal Justice, published Targets of Terror: Contemporary Assassination with Rowman and Littlefield.

Targets of Terror addresses the repercussions of assassination as a tactic of terrorism and delineates post-assassination political outcomes across target types. Assassination of heads of state, such as John F. Kennedy and Yitzhak Rabin, are rare events, but the political murders of police personnel, local government officials, politicians, and journalists occur frequently. These “softer” targets are often pursued during broader campaigns of terrorist violence, and the Global Terrorism Database (GTD) records a significant number of these assassination events—16,246 to be exact—between 1977 and 2017. 

Displaces and Health Cover


Dr. Henry Puduthase, Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, Sociology, and Social Work, and Dr. Lisa Garza, Associate Professor and Department Head, Department of Psychology, Sociology, and Social Work published a book chapter titled "Where do we stand among the marginalized in a foreign country?" in an edited volume, Displacees and Health: Issues and Challenges.

Displacees and Health: Issues and Challenges deals with issues of health and challenges in the life of displaced people of the world. This is a collective work of the experts in this field aiming at sketching the life of the displacees either caused by development, armed conflict, racial conflict or disasters.