Citation Basics

Below are citation examples for the most commonly cited kinds of resources using APA and MLA rules. Each style also has requirements for in-text reference to the cited source. Our list of databases will help create correct MLA citations. Chicago (Turabian) has two different styles, Notes-Bibliography and Author-Date.

Our Recommended Web Sites: Citing Sources page links to web sites with more detailed citation information, as well as other citation styles.

ALWAYS check with your instructor if you have questions about citation or other format issues.

APA Style

MLA Style


Book, multiple authors

Gaines, L. K., & Miller, R. L. (2003). Criminal justice in action.Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.

See Rule 7.02, Example 18 on page 203 (6th ed.)

Book, multiple authors

Gaines, Larry K., and Roger LeRoy Miller. Criminal Justice in Action. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, 2003. Print.

See Rule 5.5.4 on pages 154-56, 7th ed.


Reference book article

Goode, E. (2002). Drug legalization. In D. Levinson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of crime and punishment (Vol. 2, pp. 559-65). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

See Rule 7.02 on pages 202-203 (6th ed.)

Reference book article

Goode, Erich. "Drug Legalization." Encyclopedia of Crime and Punishment. Ed. David Levinson. Vol. 2. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2002. Print.

See rule 5.5.7 on pages 160-61, 7th ed.


Newspaper article, no byline/author

A counselor's resounding cry, even from her hospital bed: Go directly to college. (2005, December 28). The New York Times, p. B10.

See rule 7.01, Examples 9 and 10 on page 200 (6th ed.) If author is known, use the author, date, article title sequence.

Newspaper article, no byline/author

"A Counselor's Resounding Cry, Even From Her Hospital Bed: Go Directly to College." New York Times 28 Dec. 2005, late ed.: B10. Print.

See Rules 5.4.5 and 5.4.9 on pages 141-42, 145, 7th ed. If author is known, use the author, date, article title sequence.


Magazine article

Kalb, C. (2006, March 27). The therapist as scientist. Newsweek, 147(13), 50-51.

See Rule 7.01, Example 7 on page 200 (6th ed.)

Magazine article

Kalb, Claudia. "The Therapist as Scientist." Newsweek 27 Mar. 2006: 50-51. Print.

See Rule 5.4.6 on pages 142-43, 7th ed.


Journal article, journal paginated by issue

Fodor, J. (2006). How the mind works: What we still don't know. Daedalus, 135(3), 86-94.

See Rule 7.01, Example 3 on page 199 (6th ed.)

Journal article, journal paginated by issue

Fodor, Jerry. "How the Mind Works: What We Still Don't Know." Daedalus 135.3 (2006): 86-94. Print.

See Rule 5.4.2 on pages 137-40, 7th ed.


Journal article, issues paginated continuously

Côté, S., & Bouchard, S. (2009). Cognitive mechanisms underlying virtual reality exposure. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 12, 121-129. doi:10.1089/cpb.2008.0008

See Rule 7.01, Example 1 on page 198 (6th ed.)

Journal article, issues paginated continuously

Hoerig, Karl A. "The Relationship Between German Immigrants and the Native Peoples in Western Texas." Southwestern Historical Quarterly 97.1 (1994): 422-51. Print.

See Rule 5.4.2 on pages 137-40, 7th ed.


Journal article, retrieved from a database.

Ishitani, T. T. (2006). Studying attrition and degree completion behavior among first-generation college students in the United States. The Journal of Higher Education, 77, 861-865. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.

See Rule 7.01, Example 3 on page 199. Use doi if available.

Journal article, retrieved from a database.

Ishitani, Terry T. "Studying Attrition and Degree Completion Behavior Among First-Generation College Students in the United States." Journal of Higher Education 77.5 (2006): 861-85. Academic Search Complete. Web. 25 Apr. 2006.

See Rule 5.6.4 on pages 192-93, 7th ed.


Website

Bank, J., & Jackson, B. (2006, April 4). Can you prevent global warming? Retrieved from http://www.factcheck.org/
society/can_you_prevent_global_warming.html

See Rule 7.03, Examples 32-34 on page 206 (6th ed.) Include as much information as possible.

Website

Bank, Justin, and Brooks Jackson. "Can You Prevent Global Warming?" FactCheck.org Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania, 4 Apr. 2006. Web. 22 Aug. 2009.

See Rule 5.6.2 on page 184.


Government Document: Report or Informative document

United Nations. (1991). Consequences of rapid population growth in developing countries. New York, NY: Taylor.

See Rule 7.03, Example 31 on page 205 (6th ed.)

Government Document: Report or Informative document

United Nations. Consequences of Rapid Population Growth in Developing Countries. New York: Taylor, 1991. Print.

See Rule 5.5.20 on page 174-77, 7th ed..


Government Hearing, etc

Hearings on the "Equal Rights" Amendment: Hearing before the Subcommittee on Constitutional Amendments of the Committee on the Judiciary, 91st Cong. 1 (1970).

See Appendix 7.1 Example 13 on page 221. Other governmental forms can vary widely. See the full appendix on pages 216-224 (6th ed.)

Government Hearing, etc

United States. Senate. Subcommittee on Constitutional Amendments of the Committee on the Judiciary. Hearings on the "Equal Rights" Amendment. 91st Cong., 2nd sess. S. Res. 61. Washington: GPO, 1970. Print.

See Rule 5.5.20 on page 174-77, 7th ed. For more examples please see page 176.


Case law, legal documents

Specific examples provides in Appendix 7.1, p. 216-221 (6th ed.) with reference to The bluebook for additional detail.

Case law, legal documents

Use The Bluebook: A Uniform Style of Citation, Print.
Call number KF245 .B58 (Ref).

See Rule 5.7.14 on pages 205-6.

See also: Texas Rules of Form, Print/
Call number: Z UA345.5 T312RUF 2003 - Texas Documents Shelves


Basic format, book.

Authors. (Year of publication). Title of book, sentence style capitalization. Place of publication: Name of publisher.

Rule 7.02 on page 202 (6th ed.)

Basic format, book.

Authors. Title of Book, Headline Style Capitalization. Place of publication: Name of publisher, year of publication. Medium of publication.

See Rule 5.5.2 on page 149.


Basic format, periodical (newspaper, magazine, or journal)

Authors. (Date of Publication). Title of article, sentence style capitalization. Title of Publication, Headline Style Capitalization, volume number(issue number if not continuously paginated), inclusive page numbers. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

Note: Do not give the volume number of a newspaper even if it is listed.

Rule 7.01 on page 198 (6th ed.)

Basic format, periodical (newspaper, magazine, or journal)

Authors. "Title of Article, Headline Style Capitalization." Title of Publication, Headline Style Capitalization. volume number.issue number (year): inclusive page numbers. Medium of publication.

Note: All journals should include the issue number, regardless of pagination. Do not give the volume and issue numbers of a magazine or newspaper even if they are listed.


Paper Format

The OWL at Purdue - Sample APA Paper (6th edition)

Paper Format

The OWL at Purdue -sample MLA Paper 7th ed. PDF format.


Source for APA Rules

Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). (2010). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association

Source for MLA Rules

Modern Language Association of America. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7th ed. New York: The Modern Language Association of America, 2009. Print.