Volume 6 (2010), Number 1
Table of Contents
Headscarf (Hijab) Ban in Turkey: importance of veiling
University of Nevada, Reno
Turkey has implemented a ban on the use of the Hijab, or the headscarf, in state-controlled areas like universities, government offices, and other public places. This has raised various reactions from the Turkish society and its international critics, most of which are not pleasant. The anti-Hijab movement violates the basic principal of universal human rights, and at the same time tends to destabilize the core principles of the Muslim faith, in a country that is over 99% Muslim. Over two-thirds of Turkish women were put in a difficult position of having to choose between their right to be educated and employed vs. their right to follow their religion. At the heart of this apparent attack on religion lie certain political parties' desires to move ahead in the world economically while at the same time gaining advantage over other political parties.
Keywords: Hijab; headscarf ban; Islam and globalization; Islam and women
U.S. Elementary Teachers' Perceptions and Implementation of Culturally Responsive Teaching
As student populations become increasingly diverse and the majority of the U.S. teaching population continues to be White and female, discontinuity between teacher and student diversity emphasizes the need for culturally responsive teaching. Culturally responsive teaching focuses upon the experiences and knowledge of students within the classroom and builds upon the strengths they bring from their home and community environments. This study discusses U.S. elementary teachers' perceptions and implementation of culturally responsive teaching within the framework of Banks (2008) four approaches to multicultural education. Focused on two K-6 schools in the Northeast, this study used taped interviews over a three-month period with teachers and administrator (all White) as well as a parent (Black) of each school. Findings indicate that all respondents are supportive of culturally responsive teaching but that teachers implement little of it in their classrooms.
Title of the Manuscript: Enhancing the Quality of Asian American Students' School Experiences in the U.S.
Yasar Bodur, Ph. D.
Department of Teaching and Learning
Georgia Southern University
Hsiu-Lien Lu, Ed.D.
Department of Teaching and Learning
Georgia Southern University
The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of cultural values and educational issues that pertain to Asian American students. Like any other cultural group, Asian Americans show a great deal of homogeneity and heterogeneity. Central cultural values include collectivism, conformity to norms, emotional self-control, and humility. On the educational front, Asian Americans have to deal with the label "model minority." Although it is a positive stereotype, the model minority label can result in negative consequences. Educators need to understand the cultural values and the educational issues of Asian American students to create learning environments that meet their needs.
Key words: Multicultural education, Asian American culture, model minority stereotype.
Remembering to be Radical in Teacher Education: Defanged Multicultural Education
University of Minnesota
This paper identifies the radical foundations of multicultural education and discusses the reasons for why multicultural education has been defanged and has lost its radical roots. Further, the author argues for teacher education to take up the true work of multicultural education in educating future teachers for critical consciousness in the hopes that we can bring about a more socially just society for all people. This is a radical pronouncement, and it is imperative that we not forget exactly what we mean when we maintain that schooling should seek to foster a multicultural curriculum. The author concludes that this work must take place in teacher education, and that we stop blaming pre-service teachers for teacher educator's failings.
The Effects of a School-based Dropout Prevention Program on Academic Outcomes
The University of Texas at San Antonio
Oklahoma State University
The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of Reconnecting Youth (RY), a school-based dropout prevention program for at-risk youth. Data are from an independently evaluated effectiveness trial in one alternative-charter high school in the Southwest. A total of 100 students participated; 55% were male and the average age was 17. The current study examined whether participation in RY would impact grades and attendance with an ethnically homogeneous sample of high-risk Mexican American (MA) students. A treatment and comparison group design was used to analyze changes across time on grades and attendance. Repeated measures analysis of variance determined that although students' grades did not differ significantly by group, students in the RY program recorded significantly fewer absences during the program's implementation and at one year follow-up. Overall, we found partial support for the use of RY with a high-risk MA sample. As such, this study provides some evidence to suggest the RY program is effective at impacting student attendance, however, to impact grades, a longer and culturally adapted program may be necessary for high-risk MA youth. Last, the ethical obligation to conduct independent program evaluation research is discussed and research with an ethnically homogeneous MA sample is noted as a much needed addition to the literature base.
An Injection of Cultural Capital: Two teachers' bridge building endeavors
Minerva S. Chávez, Ph.D.
California State University, Fullerton
Using autoethnography, this article describes how two key educators instilled my adolescence with precise teachings of cultural capital. I will demonstrate how these experiences contributed to my educational success as an underrepresented student in an urban school setting. This article underscores some of our interactions as I transitioned between various habitus: my working-class immigrant home, the urban middle school, and the middle-class lifestyle I experienced alongside these educators. The daily routine of straddling these different habitus shaped the following perspectives in me: (1) the recognition and appreciation of the liminal perspective; (2) the agency granted by cultural capital to redefine knowledge; (3) the resources to (re)appropriate and (re)define "objective realities" in order to disrupt forms of distinction and; (4) the agency to manipulate my own position within educational institutions in order to engage in necessary symbolic struggles. I posit that early exposure to the dominant forms of cultural capital placed me in a complex position to move successfully through the educational pipeline.
Key Words: cultural capital, autoethnography, educational pipeline, habitus, urban education
Developing Multiculturalism With Children In Schools: "Analysis of Primary English Foreign Textbooks Contrasting to a Brazilian Textbook"
Fernanda da Cruz
The objective of its study is to analyze signs of multiculturalism present in children English textbooks for primary students from different countries. The idea is to reflect about the importance of the immersion of multiculturalism into the childhood education as a way of contributing to the development of the field of education. In order to find out the above objective, some procedures were necessary for the development of this study, such as observing the contents of the books used for research, the illustrations, the exercises and dialogues; checking how family, society and the school environment are presented in the books; reflecting on that; comparing and contrasting the points of analysis presented in the books and comparing and contrasting how the different textbooks present the other. Automaticity in the Classroom: Unconscious Mental Processes and the Racial Achievement Gap
Unconscious mental processes (such as the automatic activation of racial stereotypes) can lead to such phenomena as negative pygmalion effects and stereotype threat, both of which directly interfere with black students' academic success, thus widening the racial achievement gap. Because stereotype activation occurs automatically and outside of conscious awareness, there is the disturbing possibility that nothing can be done to fully mitigate its harmful effects. It is proposed, however, on the basis of recent cross-disciplinary research, that by expending deliberate effort along the personal, instructional, and environmental dimensions, conscientious teachers can counteract these effects and help close the achievement gap.
KEY WORDS: automaticity, unconscious, racial achievement gap
Multicultural Literature in Middle School: Developing Students' Self- and Cross-Cultural Understanding
Dr. Vicky Giouroukakis
Dr. Andrea Honigsfeld
Since the diversity of students in classrooms across the country has been increasing, the authors suggest a rationale and practical ideas for integrating multicultural literature into Middle School English Language Arts lessons. The purpose of this article is to argue that middle level students benefit from exposure to young adult literature with multicultural themes. The goal is to give all students opportunities to develop cross-cultural understanding through personally meaningful literary engagement. Authentic classroom examples of teaching multicultural literature to middle level students are presented. An annotated bibliography consisting of a sampling of multicultural literature categorized by diverse cultural groups appropriate for middle level students is provided.
Keywords: Multicultural, middle school, diversity
The Integration of Assistive Technology into Standard Classroom Practices: Practical Recommendations for K-12 General Educators
Moniqueka E. Gold, Ed.D.
Austin Peay State University
Charmaine Lowe, Ed.D.
Austin Peay State University
Recommendations regarding viable methods of integrating assistive technology into K-12 educational environments are becoming increasingly relevant to general educators, special educators, paraprofessionals and administrators alike who, with rising frequency, encounter and have sustained interactions with students who have disabilities and are using assistive technology. To facilitate the graceful integration of assistive technology into classroom practices, educators must become involved in the various trainings on assistive technology devices from numerous sources such as the Internet; attending face-to-face training sessions; or through each state's Parent Training and Information Center, which may be individually located at http://www.peatc.org. Assistive technology has a tremendous amount of unrealized potential for enhancing the learning of students with disabilities and those without. In order to realize that potential, however, there must first be awareness, understanding and implementation on the part of the educator and assistive technology user that optimize student learning and remain compliant with federal guidelines.
Keywords: Assistive technology, disabilities, integration
Comparing Strategies that Focus on Enhancing Knowledge and Appreciation of the Relevance of Cultural Diversity Issues for Future Teachers
Inez A. Heath, Ph. D.
Valdosta State University
Diane P. Judd, Ph. D.
Valdosta State University
Comparisons of teacher candidates in 2 groups in a state required course on culture and diversity to determine whether materials presented in the course had impact on relating concepts of diversity to real life situations and to future experiences as teachers, Both groups received the same materials, however the interactive whiteboard was used with the treatment group, while the control group received a more traditional teacher-centered approach. A pre and post test was used to compare knowledge gains by the teacher candidates in both groups. Data collected on the pre and post tests indicated significant gains by the treatment group. Analysis and rating of the writing samples also indicated higher scores for the treatment group.