Volume 5 (2010), Number 1
Table of Contents
Effective Vocabulary Instruction for English Language Learners
Emporia State University
Emily Graves, PhD
Emporia State University
English Language Learners have unique challenges to learn content in school. Teachers must use strategies for developing vocabulary to promote acquisition of academic English. Vocabulary instruction should be a part of literacy instruction and include explicit instruction in word meaning, implicit instruction to provide context, and strategy instruction to help students connect their prior knowledge to new concepts and solve comprehension problems. Vocabulary instruction that contains these elements provides repeated exposures to the target vocabulary. The six-step process by Flanigan and Greenwood (2007) can provide guidance for teachers in choosing which words to teach. The Morpheme Triangle by Winters (2009) can be used to teach students to analyze morphemes in words to later apply to new words. Cognates can help students transfer L1 knowledge into English. Cooperative groups provide language models. Graphic organizers help students to see relationships between words. Read alouds and digital helps can also foster improved vocabulary.
Key Words: Vocabulary, word choice, classroom environment, tools, activities
Holmes Scholars®, ga du gi, and Communities of Practice
University of Oklahoma
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
This article discusses the impact and effectiveness of the Holmes Scholars? Program in encouraging and developing new scholars of color from diverse areas and backgrounds. Each author relates the affect the program has had on their progress as a researcher and teacher, particularly in terms of learning communities, and the parallels to the Cherokee concept of ga du gi.
RESISTANT STUDENT ATTITUDES IN DIVERSITY COURSES
Cindy Erickson, Ed.D.
University of West Florida
This paper describes the lived experience of one student's resistant attitude toward the efficacy of multicultural education. The paper highlights the experience of one doctoral student's attempt to illuminate the resistance that continues to exist in many preservice teachers. Examining student's lived experience in a course on multiculturalism was the focus of the study. The goal for the course was to understand the students' lived experiences and their learning outcomes in terms of: (1) students' awareness of their own cultural backgrounds and its impact on their teaching methods (2) students' views of multiculturalism in its various forms (3) students awareness of the political aspect of education and how it may impact their teaching and finally, (4) students' views of what it means to be a critically reflective teacher.
FOSTERING INTER-GROUP CONTACTS AMONG MULTIRACIAL STUDENTS IN HIGHER EDUCATION
Abdul Rahim Hamdan
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
Mohd Najib Ghafar
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
Anis Ayuni Binti Che Ghani
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
Banks (1995) names prejudice reduction as one of five dimensions of multicultural education. Within this context, a study on the role of curriculum programmes in fostering intergroup contacts among the multiracial students of higher education was conducted in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor. The main purpose of this study was to determine the level of knowledge(K), attitude(A) and practice(P) of students from difference ethnic groups in fostering intergroup contacts. A total number of 130 undergraduate students participated in the study. The study revealed that the students fall into the medium level of knowledge (3.22), attitude (3.67) and practice (3.39) towards fostering intergroup contacts. Spearman correlation coefficient test results showed there is no significant relationship between the levels of KAP across gender and race. Conversely, analyses of ANOVA divulged a significant racial group difference in the levels of knowledge; meanwhile attitude and practice had no significance racial group difference in fostering intergroup contacts. It is hoped that the findings on the levels of KAP in fostering intergroup contacts among the multiracial students would provide significant information where the issues of multiculturalism is concern.
Key Words: Intergroup contacts, multiracial students, knowledge, attitude, and practice.
Multicultural Traditions and Islam in U.S. Schools Today
Liz Jackson, PhD
United States Peace Corps
This essay puts forward a historical account of pluralism and multicultural educational philosophy within the United States, and considers the case of religious pluralism, specifically the case of Islam and Muslims, in order to flesh out some of the limitations of the traditional multicultural framework and approach for the contemporary classroom. After examining the history of multicultural thought in the United States against the backdrop of widespread assimilationism, the essay argues that modern multiculturalism fails to increase minority student self-esteem, increase minority equality, or preserve cultural traditions, three major professed goals of leading multicultural educators. Elaborating on its implications for teaching in the case of Islam and Muslims, the essay thus shows that multicultural education is a highly limited approach to difference in the classroom. New approaches are needed.
Key Words: multiculturalism, pluralism, religious education, Islam, Muslims
Tasting Tolerance through World Cuisine: Combating Intolerance around the Table
Jennifer Palumbo Maan, PhD
Trinity (Washington) University
Tolerance is the foundation of a just society and is a necessary tool to equip students with to function successfully in the world's global community (Vogt, 1997). To promote the teaching of tolerance in a meaningful and engaging manner, this research study explores the implementation of an after-school world cuisines cooking club on a middle school campus. Using a qualitative approach, multiple measures of inquiry (questionnaires, student drawings, observations, interviews, and focus groups) were used as indicators of tolerance. Findings indicate participants self described increased levels of tolerance as a result of participation. Several key themes relating to community and ethnic pride emerged.
A RELIABLE SURVEY TO MEASURE TEACHERS MULTICULTURAL AWARANESS TO SCHOOL ENVIROMENT
Elsa-Sofia Morote, Ed.D.
Stephanie L. Tatum, Ph.D.
The Multicultural Awareness to School Environment (MASE) was developed to measure multicultural awareness and teachers among k-12 schools and was field tested with 136 teachers in 1 school district. Factor analysis on MASE items defined 3 subscales: School Climate, Professional Development, and Curriculum and Instruction. With continuing research to document reliability (approximately 87%) and construct validity, the MASE appears to have potential in facilitating research to better understand teachers' attitudes towards multicultural awareness to school environment.
Setting-up for success
Dr. Karen Patterson
Univeristy of North Florida
Building a successful classroom community takes effort, focus, planning, and a consistent and systematic approach to the process. It does not occur automatically in most classrooms, and even at their very best attempts, teachers find many factors obstruct the outcomes they envision. For example, student misbehavior is one of the most troubling trends in education today and the demise of many teachers. In numerous classes, it interferes with teaching, stifles learning, produces great stress, and leads to poor class morale. The purpose of this article is to help teachers build a successful classroom community by employing simple and consistent management strategies, particularly at the onset of the school year to increase the opportunities for student success.
The spirit of 'place' transmitted through arts education
University of Oxford
This article discusses the limited state of multicultural education in many North American school systems, specifically within the arts program. Many students do not feel that the school curriculum reflects who they are and their life experience. An increased emphasis on each individual's sense of 'place' may enable more students to feel connected to the school setting. Through the arts, students can use this creative vehicle to express their own sense of 'place'. Students can also entwine their experience with their classmates to create a new artistic creation that reflects today's multicultural society. Recommendations, including heightened professional and individual development in the area of student diversity, and lesson plans that emphasize the student's sense of 'place' are also offered at the end of the article to bridge the gap between theory and practice.
Key Words: Multicultural Education, Arts Education, 'Place' Education
Arab-American and Muslim-American Diversity in a Dearborn Public High School: A MultiCultural Perspective
Karen Thomas-Brown, Ph.D.
University of Michigan Dearborn
Are you an Arab? Are you Muslim? Are you Middle Eastern? The events of 9-11 brought many Arab and Muslim-Americans visibility resulting in them been categorized and contextualized. In a post 9-11 America many Arab and Muslim-Americans have had identity questioned; resulting in feelings of vulnerability because the identity ascribed to them by society was often in conflict with how they perceived themselves. This research examines the views of a group of students at Edsel Ford High School in Dearborn, Michigan, a city with one of the largest concentrations of Arab and Muslim Americans in the United Sates. The research establishes that while some of the conflicts documents among the students in this school are the product of the kids just been kids, several of these conflicts are also rooted in intolerance and a lack of knowledge about the cultural diversity of many Arab and Muslim-Americans. Finally, the research proposes that infusing the principles fundamental to peace education into aspects of an after school curriculum may be used to increase cultural awareness, reduce intolerance and diffuse some of the tensions and subsequent conflicts among the students.
Key Words: Arab and Muslim American, Tensions, Diversity, Conflict, Peace Education
Workplace Diversity as a Strategy for Recruitment, Retention and Promotion of Faculty of Color in Institutions of Higher Education
Sharon E. Williams, PhD, MSW
Grambling State University
Alan Kirk, PhD, LCSW
Kennesaw State University
Recruitment and retention of minority faculty is ever more important given the emerging landscape and an emerging multicultural society. Addressed are practices and policies in academia that serve to enhance or impede successful recruitment and retention outcomes for faculty of color. Workplace diversity is offered as a best practice and presented as a tool for evaluation.