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PBJ: Politics, Bureaucracy and Justice Journal Volume 4, Issue 1

PB&J: Volume 4, Issue 1

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PB&J Volume 4, Issue 1

Article

Offenders and Enforcers: Women in Criminal Justice.

Author: Joseph Loftus, West Texas A&M University

Abstract: Women's representation in the U.S. criminal justice system can take many forms. Women are offenders and victims. Women are also present in all areas of law enforcement consisting of local police officers, deputies, various state law enforcement, Coast Guard, military personnel and federal officers. Women encompass all aspects of the court system ranging from defense attorneys to prosecutors, municipal court judges to county court judges, district court judges to federal judges, as well as the Supreme Court of the United States. Women also work in the prison system as correctional officers and wardens. The focus of this article is women as offenders as well as enforcers of the law.

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Article

The Role of Race in the Criminal Justice System

Author: Hugh T. Fristoe, West Texas A&M University

Abstract: This essay examines the studied effects of race in several areas within the criminal justice system. It seeks to understand how disproportionate representation of minorities at every level can affect outcomes of trials, what happens in the appeals process, and opportunities for employment upon release. The essay uses existing research, which is at times sparse, to determine the role of race on outcomes. An attempt to determine what steps need to be taken, if any, in diversifying judicial, prosecutorial, or correction officers' representation is discussed. This study also provides suggestions for future research that may allow for more effective and concrete conclusions. Ultimately, the essay explains observances made by several studies regarding the role of race in the criminal justice system and attempts to provide insight into the possible future of the relationship between diverse representation and trial outcomes.

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Article

Prison Labor

Authors: Anthony Pierson, West Texas A&M University, Keith Price, West Texas A&M University, & Susan Coleman, West Texas A&M University

Abstract: Inmate work has been an important feature of prison systems in the United States since the colonial period, and work has been seen as a method to accomplish several correctional objectives. Prison labor was initiated for disciplinary reasons and retribution in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, extended and expanded for financial profit with the development of the industrial prison in the nineteenth, and maintained for its alleged therapeutic and educational value as a part of rehabilitation in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries.

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Article

Snack Pak 4 Kids-Hereford, Texas — Evaluation Report

Author: Dwight Vick, Governors State University

Abstract: Snack Pak 4 Kids-Hereford models itself after the Feeding America program that tackles hunger among vulnerable groups: children, working poor, rural citizens, and the elderly. Known as Food Every Day (FED) before joining the regional organization, SP4K focuses upon hunger among school-aged children in Hereford, Texas. This report outlines the history of that local program. The report analyzes the food distribution system, the organizational structure, and budget. An analysis of teacher, student, and parent surveys demonstrates the overall impact of the program in the classroom and on the families of the recipient children. The report concludes with recommendations for the organization based upon these combined analyses.

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Article

The Missed Revolution: How Twombly and Iqbal Tilted the Legal Playing Field While Political Science Remained Silent

Authors: Peter Yacobucci, SUNY Buffalo State & Patrick McGovern, SUNY Buffalo State

Abstract: Two recent Supreme Court decisions, Bell Atlantic Corp. v. Twombly (2007) and Ashcroft v. Iqbal (2009), sent shockwaves through legal and academic circles by introducing a plausibility requirement for all pleadings to be sufficient. Because of these decisions, the likelihood of dismissal in all cases through 12(b)(6) and related motions has jumped in the past three years. Consequently, a significant percentage of cases were dismissed before the discovery process could reveal the full facts. Our essay examines these outcomes of this new requirement through an analysis of a large sampling of cases. Specifically, we examine two outcomes of this revolution. First, the heightened pleading standard has severely hindered politically marginal plaintiffs and bolstered the defenses of the politically powerful. Our second observation casts a puzzled look at the political science academy. Significantly, while this judicially imposed revolution has stirred the legal community, no mention of this broad shift in political power in our courts can be found in political science journals. This silence is especially glaring when viewed in light of the repeated calls to make political science, as a discipline, more relevant.

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