Author: Joseph Kaminski, Purdue University
Abstract: Many of the 57 Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) states have been unsuccessful at incorporating modern bureaucracy into their political systems. While much of the Islamic world, particularly the Gulf States, have vast resources and oil wealth, they have had problems properly administering benefits in a way that is fair and beneficial to their citizens. Recurring themes can be readily identified in the literature on bureaucracy in Islamic states today: corruption, nepotism, and incompetence. Each particular state has its own unique circumstances surrounding modernization and bureaucratic development. The essay looks first at the development of bureaucratic theory in the West. It then addresses the theoretical question as to the compatibility of Western bureaucracy to Islamic states. The essay’s final part examines and compares a few particular Islamic states in Central and South Asia as well as the Gulf States and the Middle East and North Africa.
Authors: Bridgette Moore, West Texas A&M University, Eric Jones, West Texas A&M University, & Jordan Meador, West Texas A&M University
Abstract: This report examines a myriad of research on teenage pregnancy across the United States and specifically the state of Texas to elucidate the correlates involved with teenage pregnancy rates. This research includes studies compiled mostly from the 2010 census in Texas counties and employs a multiple regression analysis of the variables to determine the statistical significance of each one in relation to teenage pregnancy rates. The key factors presented in this research offer a valuable resource as law makers and legislatures continuously look to teenage pregnancy research while evaluating how to reduce the rates of unplanned pregnancies and developing new legislation concerning abortion.
Author: Reed L. Welch, West Texas A&M University
Abstract: This article looks at the 2004 presidential campaigns of George W. Bush and John Kerry to understand better how candidates and their campaigns should attack each other and react to being attacked. These campaigns are examined because Bush and Kerry faced aggressive attacks over their backgrounds and each reacted differently to these charges, contributing to Bush’s reelection. Although occurring on a smaller stage, attacks and charges take place in races throughout the United States every election season. At whatever level these elections occur, lessons can be learned from the experiences and efforts of Bush and Kerry in 2004.
Author: Paul H. Clark, West Texas A&M University
Abstract: In Taisho era Japan (1912–1926), there were very few middle schools in the entire country. Though education officials in Japan were successful in creating primary schools and had achieved a 96% attendance rate, education ended for all but the elites after six years. As Japan entered the modern era, this weakness could not be allowed to continue. However, the Japanese government did not have the resources to establish thousands of schools they felt were necessary. Therefore, they encouraged the creation of private schools wherever possible. This article chronicles the creation of one such institution—Seinan Gakuin, a private, parochial middle school in Fukuoka, Japan. The establishment of this institution was important for the city of Fukuoka and for Japan because it provided educational opportunities that would otherwise not have been available and because it was later expanded and eventually became one of the finest universities in Japan.